An ancient fortress in the upper valley of the Foglia river, lying on a plateau in the territory of Sasso Simone and the Simoncello regional park, the castle's turrets show the ghibelline architectural elements crowning the perimeter walls.
An epoch of distant times, battles and glorious knights, sumptuous banquets, performances and archery competitions to decree the most skilled of the archers. Even today, once a year, at the end of July they come back to life in the magical atmosphere of the party, filling the air with perfumes, colours and flavours soaked in history and legend.
Here is the Palio of the Counts of Oliva, in honour of Montefeltro's ancient house: the Counts of Oliva from Piagnano, captains of arms and soldiers always exposed to the dangers of the war, appointed in 1233 by Emperor Frederick II to remain faithful to the political ideal of the Ghibellines and the territory of Rimini.
Originally the village was named Planus Mileti. Of medieval origin, founded by the Rectors of Massa Trabaria in the 12th century, but began to develop from the 14th century with the advent of the Oliva family.
The historic centre preserves the medieval urban structure with narrow streets arranged in an orthogonal manner and houses with the typical "door of the dead (two doors … one for coffins and one for everyday use…) On the ruins of the ancient fortress of the Carolingian age stands the castle, built in the second half of the fifteenth century after the destruction by the troops of Francesco Sforza. The renaissance palace in Montefeltro is symbol of power and splendour, a magnificent example with splendid interiors modelled on the court of Federico Duke of Urbino, formerly the residence of the Counts of Oliva but that today is the seat of the municipality and important museums (Farm Work Museum,Herb museum, Earth Science Museum and Heraldry Hall).
Piandimeleto conserves in the parish church of San Biagio (once an ancient convent) the Oliva family tombstones that are in Gothic style and there are frescoes from the sixteenth century with the Madonna and Child and Saints. In Monastero there is the Benedictine abbey of Santa Maria del Mutino from the early twelfth century, while in San Sisto one can visit the Museum of Fungus. Inside the municipal library there is also an art collection "Ugo Ubaldi" which includes collections of heterogeneous objects dating from different epochs and different origins.
The name of Piandimeleto is also linked to that of Raffaello: in 1488 Giovanni Santi, while working on the chapel of Montefiorentino, was nominated the tutor of his soon the decorative painter and poet Evangelista da Piandimeleto. The latter has the merit of contributing to the artist’s first human and artistic formation.